2015 DFRWS Forensics Challenge
SUBMITTED SOLUTIONS AND SOURCE CODE RELEASED
(See bottom of the page)
The purpose of this challenge is to foster interest in development of GPU memory analysis tools, to enhance our abilities to understand and mitigate GPU-enhanced malware. The goal isn't to present insanely difficult to analyze GPU malware--that, unfortunately, is likely to develop on its own, and better that the community starts preparing before it happens, by developing appropriate tools and techniques. As with most DFRWS challenges, there's both low-hanging fruit and harder stuff to deal with, so regardless of your skill level, we hope you'll have fun and get something out of the experience.
This page provides some basic tools and resources to support the challenge and associated research efforts. Importantly, and thanks to NVidia's cooperation, downloads of the first-ever tools for comprehensive GPU memory dumping for Linux are provided in the Downloads area, at the bottom of the page.
Niles Boudreaux, the infamous Cajun chef from the DFRWS 2014 Forensics Rodeo (review the DFRWS 2014 Forensics Rodeo materials for background) can't seem to catch a break. After being hacked by his former IT specialist in that scenario, he retired from the frozen food business, downsized, and is trying to rekindle his cooking mojo, develop new recipes and plan a new venture. Niles has also upped his computer skills after receiving a brand new Lenovo Y50 from his Cajun nephew (Golden, who configured it and then ran away, fearing for his life, given past experience). Once again, however, tragedy may have struck. After noticing strange computer behavior, Niles contacted his friend and forensic expert, Steve Carrier, to investigate. Steve took a photo of Niles' screen using his iPhone (see below) and then a LiME-format physical memory dump of Nile's computer. Because of his increased awareness of GPU-based malware (Steve and Niles have shared more than a few drinks and a paella or two over discussions about Niles' poor luck with computers) and the availability of appropriate forensics tools for dumping GPU memory, Steve took a GPU memory dump. Given Niles' propensity for bad luck, it's not surprising that Steve choked on a particularly large bite of boudin (supplied by Niles, to speed the investigation, of course) shortly after initiating the forensics investigation. Luckily, the two memory dumps live on, and that's where you come in. Just steer well clear of Niles and chew carefully while you work, if you know what we mean.
Niles is particularly interested in:
o Identifying any malware that's present on his computer system. The exact nature of the malware, its apparent purpose, and any potentially malicious actions are of interest.
o Determining exactly what data, if any, was collected by any malware that's present. Was any of Niles' personal or work-oriented information collected?
Challenge Goals and Scoring
The goal of the challenge is to foster development of semi-automated or automated tools for analyzing GPU-enabled malware. Tools that bridge the gap between traditional memory analysis and analysis of GPU device memory and between reverse engineering of host and GPU malware components are particularly encouraged. Therefore, while one goal of the challenge is to answer the investigative questions, much stronger weight will be given to submissions that support flexible, reusable, (semi-?)automated analysis than submissions based on manual analysis. Translation: While mad hex editor skills are cool, write some tools!
Contestants may enter individually, or as a team, with no restrictions. Source code for tools developed to solve the challenge must be openly available under a free software license, such as those listed at http://www.gnu.org/licenses/license-list.html. The author(s) retain rights to the source code. Tools may incorporate third-party free software, as long as it is compatible with your license and is included with your submission. However, submissions will be judged on the contribution your own research brings to the challenge.
Submissions must include clear instructions for building tool(s) from source code along with all relevant dependencies.
DFRWS will publish the results of the Challenge, both in detailed and summary form, along with the methodology used and the source code for the tools.
Notes on Using Volatility
The 3.13.0-32 kernel on Niles' Lenovo Y50 XUbuntu 14.04 installation, used to create the final challenge materials, uses a relocatable kernel, as described here: http://cateee.net/lkddb/web-lkddb/RELOCATABLE.html. The Volatility developers hadn't previously encountered kernels compiled with this option, and so some updates to Volatility were necessary. If you're using Volatility with the profile supplied in the Downloads area, below, to tackle the host memory dump, be sure to git pull to get the latest file versions.
Using the GPU Memory Dumping Tools
You can work on the challenge with no access to specialized hardware, but because of the low associated costs and the advantages of being able to create your own scenarios and GPU memory dumps, creating a test system is strongly recommended. Currently, the GPU dumping tools work exclusively on Linux and on select NVIDIA GPUs. A patched driver is necessary to enable GPU memory dumping--this is detailed in the README inside the tools tarball in the Downloads area, below. The target platform is currently Ubuntu 14.04 and NVIDIA GTX 750 Ti / NVIDIA GTX 860M GPUs. Other modern NVIDIA GPUs are very likely to work, as are other Linux distributions. Please relay your experiences with alternate platforms to me via email@example.com so that I can update the list below accordingly. Please let me know if you have any problems with the tools, but please DO NOT bug NVidia!
Currently tested platforms
64-bit XUbuntu 14.04 w/ GTX 750Ti NVIDIA GPU (Golden G. Richard III)
64-bit XUBuntu 14.04 on Lenovo Y50 with GTX 860M (Golden G. Richard III)
Detailed installation instructions are included in the tarball--please study the README carefully. I've provided links to the tarball and to the necessary driver and prerequisite packages that are required at the bottom of the page. Essentially, all you have to do is install the required packages, apply patches as specified, and then make all to build nvidia_fb, which is the memory dumping utility, and a test suite. The tools must be run as root to access GPU memory.
You can determine the size of GPU device memory using nvidia-smi, e.g.,
Thu Sep 18 17:32:32 2014
| NVIDIA-SMI 343.13 Driver Version: 343.13 |
| GPU Name Persistence-M| Bus-Id Disp.A | Volatile Uncorr. ECC |
| Fan Temp Perf Pwr:Usage/Cap| Memory-Usage | GPU-Util Compute M. |
| 0 GeForce GTX 860M Off | 0000:01:00.0 N/A | N/A |
| N/A 43C P0 N/A / N/A | 7MiB / 2047MiB | N/A Default |
| Compute processes: GPU Memory |
| GPU PID Process name Usage |
| 0 Not Supported |
The following command line should be used to dump GPU device memory:
$ ./dump_fb -o start -s length -f dumpfile -g GPU-UUID
where start is a 4K-aligned location in GPU RAM at which dumping should begin, length is a 4K-aligned size (in bytes) for the dump operation, dumpfile is the name of the image file to generate, and GPU-UUID is the identifier for the GPU that's targeted. Use the following command to determine the GPU ID:
$ nvidia-smi -L
GPU 0: GeForce GTX 860M (UUID: GPU-e2153072-ec1d-fa00-6f01-8749912913e2)
and use only the bold portion (i.e., omit the "GPU-" prefix). For example, the following command dumps the first 4K of memory from the specified GPU:
$ sudo ./dump_fb -o 0 -s 4096 -f blarg -g e2153072-ec1d-fa00-6f01-8749912913e2
Note that the package also contains a test suite. After installation, test by executing the nvidia_fb_test application and specifying a GPU UID (again, without the "GPU-" prefix) using "-g". A correct execution of the test cases is illustrated below. Anything else is an indicator of a problem with the installation.
$ nvidia-smi -L
GPU 0: GeForce GTX 860M (UUID: GPU-e2153072-ec1d-fa00-6f01-8749912913e2)
$ sudo ./dump_fb_test -g e2153072-ec1d-fa00-6f01-8749912913e2
[==========] Running 20 tests from 2 test cases.
[----------] Global test environment set-up.
[----------] 10 tests from DumpFbTest
[ RUN ] DumpFbTest.ZeroLength
[ OK ] DumpFbTest.ZeroLength (219 ms)
[ RUN ] DumpFbTest.NullPtr
[ OK ] DumpFbTest.NullPtr (110 ms)
[ RUN ] DumpFbTest.RandomPtr
[ OK ] DumpFbTest.RandomPtr (109 ms)
[ RUN ] DumpFbTest.ReadOnly
[ OK ] DumpFbTest.ReadOnly (114 ms)
[ RUN ] DumpFbTest.BasicTest
[ OK ] DumpFbTest.BasicTest (197 ms)
[ RUN ] DumpFbTest.LargeTest
[ OK ] DumpFbTest.LargeTest (213 ms)
[ RUN ] DumpFbTest.OffsetTest
[ OK ] DumpFbTest.OffsetTest (281 ms)
[ RUN ] DumpFbTest.ConsistencyCheck
[ OK ] DumpFbTest.ConsistencyCheck (284 ms)
[ RUN ] DumpFbTest.UnalignedCpuAddress
[ OK ] DumpFbTest.UnalignedCpuAddress (116 ms)
[ RUN ] DumpFbTest.OverflowTest
[ OK ] DumpFbTest.OverflowTest (136 ms)
[----------] 10 tests from DumpFbTest (1780 ms total)
[----------] 10 tests from PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest
[ RUN ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidth/0
[ OK ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidth/0 (87 ms)
[ RUN ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidth/1
[ OK ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidth/1 (87 ms)
[ RUN ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidth/2
[ OK ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidth/2 (107 ms)
[ RUN ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidth/3
[ OK ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidth/3 (127 ms)
[ RUN ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidth/4
[ OK ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidth/4 (407 ms)
[ RUN ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidthLocked/0
[ OK ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidthLocked/0 (87 ms)
[ RUN ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidthLocked/1
[ OK ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidthLocked/1 (87 ms)
[ RUN ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidthLocked/2
[ OK ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidthLocked/2 (110 ms)
[ RUN ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidthLocked/3
[ OK ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidthLocked/3 (128 ms)
[ RUN ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidthLocked/4
[ OK ] PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest.TestBandwidthLocked/4 (411 ms)
[----------] 10 tests from PerformanceTest/PerformanceTest (1638 ms total)
[----------] Global test environment tear-down
[==========] 20 tests from 2 test cases ran. (3535 ms total)
[ PASSED ] 20 tests.
I've also provided an application for stuffing GPU device memory with the contents of a file. This is useful to get started with GPU memory analysis, because it allows you to benignly stuff arbitrary content (readable strings, binary structures, etc.) into GPU device memory and then test the dumping tools (and your own tools). It's a CUDA application called fillgpu and can be downloaded below. A simple proof of concept GPU-based keylogger (which works only for USB keyboards and has both userspace and kernelspace components) is also available below.
Again, please let me know if you have any problems with the tools. Please DO NOT bug NVidia!
GPU mem dump tools tarball (nvidia-dump-fb-1.0.tar.gz) MD5: 84e0f7e0ca9aaece30d0205c8e481536
GPU deployment kit (cuda_340_29_gdk_linux_64.run) MD5: 12406064cd1654e8b2f22ceea6c77502
343.13 graphics driver (NVIDIA-Linux-x86_64-343.13.run) MD5: 583597fb4793542a65a889b6262a8816
fillgpu tarball (fillgpu.tar.gz) MD5: 6c25fea7a9e832a00a5f0839eb2827b5
keystroke logger tarball (keylogger.tar.gz) MD5: ba234b4aa961b8ad83ffab8a926ef939
Challenge memory images
Host memory image (NILES.lime.bz2) MD5: 34b888a3982754ded8aab9101564391d
GPU memory image (NILES.gpu.bz2) MD5: d3f368882b4a8ea2c07a10cbd6801c35
Volatility 2.4 profile for Niles' machine (Xubuntu1404.zip) MD5: c9871e739ed20cc8bfec2d532c4425b6
Submitted challenge solutions
Note: these are partial solutions and do not address all aspects of the challenge. You should consider this a challenge in itself, to continue development of better tools for GPU memory forensics and malware analysis.
GPU malware source code